The survey says: Season ticket holders rate comfort attending football games

Deal-breakers for fans include regulated exiting of stadiums, no tailgating, and not being guaranteed usual seats or parking

This newsletter is like Monmouth basketball player George Papas’ steal and dunk in the closing seconds at Kansas last season, when his team trailed 110-55.

This newsletter is like the one last beer I grabbed on a Friday night in college, after all the lights in the basement were turned on, the music was cut off and people started flooding out of the house after the Interfraternity Council shut down all the parties on campus.

The end of the college football season appeared inevitable.

It might be over before it even started.

But if the end of the season is near, why not make the most of the last few moments, like it’s a tomahawk dunk inside of Allen Fieldhouse or a room-temperature Keystone Light in a mostly-empty basement?

(Note: After I finished this newsletter, Clemson quarterback Trevor Lawrence has since tweeted about creating a college football players association, along with many other notable players, so who the hell knows what will happen next.)

In order to beat the news of the week – whenever and whatever it is – this newsletter was scheduled to be published at 5 a.m. ET Monday morning. It might *technically* be relevant for a few hours, if I’m lucky.

But whenever the powers that be reconvene to discuss the prospect of playing football this fall, basketball this winter or football in the spring, or whatever sport comes next at a moment in time that’s deemed safe enough, this newsletter will become relevant again.

The reason we’re here is because the virus that led to 1,629 confirmed cases of COVID-19 in the U.S. through March 12 (the day the 2020 NCAA Tournament was canceled), per the CDC, has now killed over 160,000 Americans.

Until an approved vaccine hits the market or the leaders in this country enact measures that effectively stop the spread of the virus and Americans follow them, there will still be the issue of how to safely allow the return of sports and how to allow fans to safely watch them in person.

Previously: Athletes, staffers ask for more mental health resources amid budget cuts

So while the topics addressed here may or may not apply to Week 0 of the college football season, they’ll be part of the calculus whenever sports return.

Last month, Out of Bounds reported several of the socially distanced seating plans that the University of North Carolina was considering for this fall, which included groups as small as three or four people, and as many as eight.

But would college football fans even feel comfortable attending games with these socially distanced seating arrangements – either because they believe it would still be too unsafe or because they believe it would take away from the in-person college football experience?

This newsletter will provide the answer to that question and many more, regarding the health and safety of fans attending college sports amid a pandemic.

Out of Bounds obtained the results from surveys sent to fans of Florida Atlantic and Illinois regarding their comfort attending games this fall. Houston, Texas and Texas State sent similar surveys, but Out of Bounds didn’t receive the results in time for this newsletter.

Clemson previously released publicly its survey results, which include a Google Sheets document with more than 4,500 responses ranging from “Stop bowing to the Liberal agenda” and “If there is anything this country needs is Dabo swinney, The Clemson Tigers & Football on Saturday’s [sic]. Spot the damn ball,” to “If needed skip a year. I’d rather everyone be safe and Clemson not cause deaths.”

In the FAU and Illinois surveys, Out of Bounds found that between 15 and 30 percent of fans, depending on the school and the question, said they would no longer plan to attend football games for various health and safety measures this fall, including if there were regulated entrances and exits at the stadium, tailgating not being allowed, their current seat and parking locations being changed due to social distancing, and the marching band not being allowed to play.

There’s also a significant percentage of fans who indicated that they’re on the fence when it comes to their stance on many of these considerations, indicated by them either answering “neither comfortable nor uncomfortable” when given a range of options or by not answering some questions at all.

Like many facets of life since the pandemic began, there’s a lot of uncertainty – understandably.

In open-ended question formats, some fans expressed their desire to see their new seat location (and its relation to their friends, the marching band, cheerleaders, etc.) before answering one way or the other to questions about potential seat relocation and socially distanced seat arrangements.

Previously: ‘You are looking live … at Introductory Accounting here at Kyle Field’

Here are some of the deal-breakers for fans (meaning what percent of fans who responded to a survey said that they wouldn’t attend a home game under the following circumstances):

  • “Being in a large crowd and/or in close contact with strangers” was selected by 129 FAU fans, or roughly 63 percent of respondents, as a reason why they may not attend games or events at FAU. However, this was part of a “select all that apply” question and 106 FAU fans, or 51.7 percent of the respondents, said they plan on attending games or events this year.

  • Exiting of the stadium being regulated (29.6 percent of Illinois fan respondents)

  • If tailgating is not allowed due to social distancing (28.5 percent of Illinois fan respondents)

  • Not being guaranteed their current parking spot due to social distancing measures (20.7 percent of Illinois fan respondents)

  • Being displaced from their current seating assignment due to social distancing (20.5 percent of Illinois fan respondents; 15.6 percent of FAU fan respondents, with 39 percent saying they were unsure if they would still attend games; 17.6 percent of FAU fans said they’re not open to moving to a new seat location for 2020 if it meant they could return to their original seat location in 2021)

  • The cleanliness of the food services areas was selected by 20 percent of FAU fan respondents as a reason why they may not attend games or events

  • Stadium entrances being regulated by time and gate (19.5 percent of Illinois fan respondents)

  • The cleanliness of restrooms was selected by 19 percent of FAU fan respondents as a reason why they may not attend games or events

  • 18 percent of FAU fan respondents said their plans to attend games would change if asked to sit at a distance from other fans

  • Attending the game without in-game programming, such as the marching band or marketing elements (16.8 percent of Illinois fan respondents)

  • The potential for FAU staff members not being healthy was selected by 16 percent of FAU fan respondents as a reason why they may not attend games or events

  • The wearing of masks or face coverings in common areas (13.2 percent of Illinois fan respondents; 8.8 percent of FAU fan respondents said they wouldn’t attend if masks were required in FAU Stadium)

  • Season ticket quantities being reduced due to social distancing measures (7.7 percent of Illinois fan respondents)

  • If there is a no-bag policy (4.9 percent of Illinois fan respondents)

  • One (1) fan wrote that he or she wouldn’t attend a Florida Atlantic home football game this fall because he/she lives in Colorado. Objectively, this is a very good explanation for why one may not attend a game in Boca Raton, Florida.

Here are additional details for individual school surveys that Out of Bounds obtained.

Florida Atlantic

The fan survey issued by Florida Atlantic lists the date July 9, 2020 on the first page, and it includes 205 fan responses. One-hundred and twenty-six of the fans, or roughly 61 percent, identified as being 55 years or older, including 40 who are older than 70.

In an interview with Out of Bounds last month, Dr. Ron Waldman, a professor of global health and an infectious diseases expert at George Washington University’s Milken Institute School of Public Health said:

“The virus doesn’t know how old you are so it just happens. We do these studies on an observational basis so whoever’s looking at the records, they arbitrarily decide. I don’t think that there’s been established a biological age at which risk increases. Seventy for sure is in the very high-risk group, some places use 65, some places drop it as low as 60 but there’s increased severity and increased mortality with increasing age.”

No one who’s 24 or younger responded to Florida Atlantic’s survey and just 13 respondents listed their age as being between 25 and 34.


Out of Bounds obtained the survey responses for 3,128 Illinois fans, who responded to the athletic department’s survey between June 15 and June 19. For every survey question, there were as few as 40 fans who didn’t answer and as many as 116.

Here are the locations of Illinois fans who responded to the survey, as the school (unsurprisingly) has a very Midwestern fan/alumni base.

Comfort attending games/social distancing

Florida Atlantic: At the time of this survey, how comfortable are you with leaving the house?

44.4%: I still limit the amount of times I go out

31.2%: I am ready to return to normalcy

22.9%: I only leave for necessities

1.5%: I do not leave the house

Florida Atlantic: How comfortable do you feel attending FAU Football games this fall with fans? (10 being the most comfortable)

On a scale of 1 to 10, “10” and “8” were two of the three most-popular responses.

Florida Atlantic: If you were to attend an FAU home football game in the fall, would you prefer social distancing to be implemented?

66.8%: Yes

18.5%: I’m not sure

14.6%: No

Florida Atlantic: If attending games but asked to sit at a distance, would your plans to attend games change?

46.8%: No

35.1%: I’m not sure

18.0%: Yes

A few FAU fans wrote that enforced social distancing in 2020 wouldn’t be much different from their 2019 experience at home football games. One fan wrote, “Honestly - last year - our whole section was practicing 'social distancing' already!!” Another added, “we would like to keep our seats, there is no issue with social distancing due to no one sits in our section or near.”

One fan wrote, “My season tickets are already quite far from others by design. Been practicing social distancing way before it became the thing to do.” Another comment read, “At games in the past we have had open seats around us so there is a possibility to stay where we are and work with that.”

Previously: A John Wooden-era college basketball scheduling model to consider for 2020-21

Illinois: How comfortable are you attending Illinois football and men’s basketball games in the fall?

35.3%: Very comfortable regardless of safety guidance

34.9%: Very comfortable with social distancing

12.6%: Not comfortable at all

11.3%: Neither comfortable or uncomfortable

5.6%: Not comfortable - I am a high-risk individual (medical conditions, age, etc.)

Of the 3,088 respondents who answered the question, almost an equal number were very comfortable attending home football and men’s basketball games regardless of the safety measures as the number of fans who were very comfortable with social distancing.

Roughly 18.2 percent of responders were not comfortable attending football and men’s basketball games and slightly less than a third of the fans who said they weren’t comfortable indicated it was because they are a high-risk individual.

Illinois: What role do you believe the DIA [Division of Intercollegiate Athletics] and event staff playing in mandating social distancing?

53.8%: Give guidance, create barrier and put down line markets, but fans must police on their own

31.3%: Police, monitor, and regulate movement

14.7%: Once you are in, you are on your own

Illinois: Which type of seating would you prefer the DIA use when ticketing this season?

82.8%: Reserved

17.2%: General Admission

Illinois: How would you feel about capacity increasing in Memorial Stadium throughout the season, if restrictions are lifted across the State of Illinois? (click all that apply)

1,535 responses: It would be great to get closer to a packed Memorial Stadium

1,368 responses: I understand this is an unprecedented challenge for reseating the stadium

620 responses: I would not be happy about people sitting closer than six-feet at any point in the season

415 responses: I would not be happy about people with less priority sitting in better seats

160 responses: I would buy more ticket when I am able

64 people did not respond

Roughly 2.5 times the number of people said it would be great to get closer to a packed Memorial Stadium if state restrictions are lifted compared to the number of fans who said they would not be happy about people sitting closer than six feet away at any point in the season.

More respondents were in favor of a near-packed Memorial Stadium if state restrictions are lifted than those who said they understood the unprecedented challenge of reseating the stadium.

Florida Atlantic: Please rate your comfort level with the following options:

Click on the image to open it in a new window.

General Admission Seating with social distancing”

  • Just over 40 percent of respondents indicated they were “extremely uncomfortable” with General Admission seating with social distancing and more than 58 percent said they were somewhat uncomfortable or extremely uncomfortable with that setup. Only 14.5 percent of respondents were extremely comfortable with GA seating with social distancing and just 27 percent indicated any level of comfort with that seating arrangement.

“Using an elevator with other fans”

  • FAU fans expressed discomfort towards sharing an elevator with other fans. There were 77 fans who said they’d be extremely uncomfortable with it and 127 in total (61.9%) expressed some level of discomfort. By comparison, the graph shows that just 57 respondents indicated they’d be extremely or somewhat comfortable sharing an elevator with other fans.

Entering/exiting the stadium

Illinois: Would you still attend games if entrance into Memorial Stadium or State Farm Center was regulated with time and gate you could enter? (i.e. Your entrance time is 45 minutes prior to kick through Portal 6)

80.4%: Yes

19.5%: No

Illinois: Would you still attend games if exiting Memorial Stadium or State Farm Center was regulated? (Ushers would dismiss rows at games end)

70.4%: Yes

29.6%: No

Wearing masks or face coverings

Illinois: Will you attend games if you are required to wear a mask or face covering while in common areas of the stadium (entrance, Great Halls, restrooms)?

55.6%: Yes, no matter the state safety guidance

31.0%: Yes, but if the State of Illinois says I don’t have to, I’m not going to

13.2%: No

More than half of the survey respondents said they’re willing to attend games if they’re required to wear a mask or face covering, regardless of what the state of Illinois’s stance on the issue. Slightly less than a third said they willing to attend games if they’re required to wear a mask or face covering, but that they won’t if the state says they don’t have to.

Wearing a mask or face covering is a deal-breaker for roughly two out of every 15 Illinois fans.

Florida Atlantic: If masks were required inside FAU Stadium, would you still plan to attend an FAU game?

72.7%: Yes

18.5%: I’m not sure

8.8%: No

Tickets/financial impact of COVID-19

Florida Atlantic: What are the reasons you may not attend games/events at FAU?

“I don’t want to spend the money”

Just four of the 205 FAU fan respondents, or roughly two percent, indicated that not wanting to spend the money was a reason why they may not attend games or events.

Illinois: Has the COVID-19 pandemic affected your household financially in a way that would impact your ability to purchase tickets the same as past years?

65.5%: Not impacted

30.5%: Somewhat impacted

4.0%: Significantly impacted

This is an important data point – not just for FAU and Illinois, and their fan bases, but across college athletics. Here’s why:

  • Roughly two-thirds of the Illinois fans who responded to the school’s survey acknowledged the pandemic hasn’t affected them financially in a way that has impacted their ability to buy the football tickets they’re used to buying.

  • Among the Illinois fans who indicated they are full season ticket holders (1,192 fans), 69.7 percent of them said they have not been impacted financially from the COVID-19 pandemic in a way that would impact their ability to purchase tickets the same way as they have in past years. When you take out the number of season ticket holders who didn’t answer the question, that number climbs to 71.1 percent.

  • More than 71 percent of Illinois fans who said they are full season ticket holders who also buy season parking passes said the pandemic has not impacted their ability to purchase tickets at the same level.

  • Of the 91 Illinois fans who 1) indicated they are full season ticket holders 2) who buy premium seats and 3) answered the survey question about the financial impact of COVID-19, 67 fans, or 73.6 percent, said they were not impacted in a way that would prevent them from buying premium tickets.

  • All five Illinois fans who indicated they buy suites said COVID-19 has not caused a financial impact on them that would prevent from buying suite tickets this year.

All that data means the majority of Illinois fans who make the most significant investment in Illinois football and men’s basketball, in terms of season tickets and parking, have said they haven’t been financially impacted by the pandemic to the point that they could no longer buy the same tickets.

That’s not to say they haven’t still been affected financially, whether through the stock market or on a smaller scale in terms of their liquid assets and their level of discretionary expenses. And it also doesn’t mean they haven’t been affected personally, physically or emotionally by the virus, whether they’ve been affected firsthand or if a friend or loved one has had the virus.

But after weeks and months of reading replies from many college football fans on Twitter, who have clamored for a season, it’s fair to wonder how much many of the fans who are begging for football have personally been affected by the pandemic, and then to compare that to how much the players would be risking in terms of their health and future earning potential in order to make a football season possible.

It’s impossible to paint with a broad brush, but the data provided by Illinois fans suggests that many season ticket holders have not been seriously affected financially by the pandemic, but college athletes, whose current monetary compensation is limited to stipends, could be risking their professional earning potential and overall well-being in order to play in front of fans whose financial security is often, well, secure.

Illinois: If season tickets quantities need to be reduced due to required social distancing are you still interested in attending football and men’s basketball games?

62.3%: Yes

30.0%: It depends on how much is reduced

7.7%: No

Illinois: How would you feel about being displaced from your current season ticket location in order to maintain social distancing?

45.5%: I completely understand this need

34.0%: If it means I can get in the stadium, I’ll do it

20.5%: Absolutely not

Florida Atlantic: Please rate your comfort level with the following options:

(same question/graphic from above)

“Keeping your same seat locations/No Social Distancing”

  • Many FAU fans were also uncomfortable with keeping their same seat locations and the stadium not implementing social distancing. Just less than 33 percent of respondents were extremely uncomfortable with that option and 53.6 percent indicated they were somewhat or extremely uncomfortable with it. Almost a quarter of the fans who responded (21.9%) said they were extremely comfortable keeping their same seat locations with no social distancing and 40 percent indicated some level of comfort for the idea.

Illinois: How do you feel about all tickets being mobile this season?

67.3%: I’m very comfortable with mobile tickets

14.5%: I haven’t used it, but I’m comfortable with technology

11.1%: I could do it, but need to be educated

7.0%: I’m not comfortable at all

Illinois: How do you feel about getting communication from the I FUND?

43.3%: Go ahead and send out fundraising emails as normal

29.6%: I want to stay connected, but no asks

16.8%: I don’t like seeing I FUND emails right now

10.3%: I want to know about specific areas of need where I can help

Illinois: How comfortable are you giving to the I FUND, if there isn’t a certainty of the football and men’s basketball seasons?

39.9%: I am not an I FUND Donor

28.4%: Yes, I have already made my donation for 2020

12.1%: Yes, I plan on making my 2020 donation soon

12.1%: No, if I can’t get my tickets or parking I will not make a donation

7.4%: No, I am not making a donation because of financial insecurities


Illinois: Will you still attend football and men’s basketball if you aren’t guaranteed your normal parking spot in order to maintain social distancing?

79.2%: Yes

20.7%: No

Florida Atlantic: Please rate your comfort level with the following options:

(same question/graphic from above)

“Parking directly next to other vehicles”

  • There weren’t major concerns around parking, with 44.8 percent of FAU fans responding that they were extremely comfortable parking directly next to other vehicles and 67.3 percent indicated any level of comfort, compared to just 6.3 percent who said they were extremely uncomfortable.


Illinois: How would you feel about transactions inside Memorial Stadium and State Farm Center being debit/credit card only (concessions, ticketing, merchandise)

92.2%: That’s fine

7.8%: I don’t like it

In-game entertainment/programming

Illinois: Will you attend games if the in-game programming is watered down (no band/smaller band; no marketing elements; just the game)

83.2%: Yes, it’ll be tough but it’s only temporary

16.8%: No, it’ll ruin the experience for me

When asked, “What are the reasons you may not attend games/events at FAU?” one respondent wrote, in all-caps, “MARCHING BAND NOT PLAYING.” Another FAU fan wrote, “I have heard that the games may not include a halftime show or pregame, this would upset my wife and I greatly. May want my season ticket money back if we don’t get the full college game we paid for.”


Illinois: Will you attend football games if tailgating isn’t allowed due to required social distancing?

46.0%: Yes, I completely understand this is a different year

28.5%: No, it is too important to my gameday tradition

25.5%: Yes, but I’d like a little bit of pregame entertainment

Florida Atlantic: Please rate your comfort level with the following options:

(Same question/graphic as above)

“Tailgating prior to the game”

  • FAU fans were very split on tailgating. There were 62 fans (roughly 30 percent) who said they’d be extremely uncomfortable doing so, which was the most popular of the five options given, while 52 fans (roughly 25 percent) said they’d be extremely comfortable. In total, 93 fans said they’d be somewhat or extremely comfortable, compared to 84 fans who were somewhat or extremely uncomfortable. Overall, that’s a higher number of fans who were comfortable with tailgating (roughly 45 percent) than those who are uncomfortable (roughly 41 percent), but the group of fans who said “extremely uncomfortable” was the most represented of any option.

Illinois: Would you have any interest in parking in specially designated “no tailgating” lots in order to promote social distancing?

38.1%: I think it is a good option for people who are concerned, but doubt I would use it

37.4%: Yes, I think that is a good option and I would be interested

24.5%: I have no interest in this

Florida Atlantic: Please rate your comfort level with the following options:

(Same question/graphic as above)

“Parking in a lot where other guests are tailgating”

  • “Extremely comfortable” and “somewhat comfortable” were the two most popular choices by a clear margin with 60 and 44 responses, respectively, compared to 36 fans who expressed extreme discomfort. That’s 104 of the 205 fans who expressed some level of comfort with parking near fans who are tailgating compared to 68 fans who expressed some level of discomfort parking near fans who are tailgating, which is roughly 33 percent of respondents.

The cleaning of facilities

Illinois: Do you want to see facilities staff deep cleaning areas during the course of the game?

63.4%: I trust the DIA to make that determination

26.3%: Yes

10.2%: No

Bag policies

Illinois: How would you feel about attending Illinois football and men’s basketball games if there is a NO BAG policy?

79.4%: I’ll attend

15.6%: I’m hesitant to attend

4.9%: I won’t attend

The fun stuff*

*This is by no means fun.

In case you were wondering if ~politics~ might turn off any fans from attending a college football game this fall, here’s your answer. As part of a response that initially talked about the difficulty of asking fans in Florida to wear face masks during day games due to the heat (a valid point!), one FAU fan wrote, “Unfortunately, I don’t expect there to be a season this year. There are too many governors, mayors, college presidents and bots that don’t want anything good to happen until after the election.”

Another one of the school’s fans wrote, “if players take a knee,” as a reason why he or she may not attend games or events.

One FAU fan wrote, “no social protests. i came to see football.”

Here’s what FAU fans said

The last question of FAU’s fan survey was an open-ended prompt for fans to provide any additional comments about fan safety. By and large, the majority of the responses expressed concern for fan safety, ranging from fans who asked for social distancing or mask requirements before they’d feel comfortable attending a football game, to fans who just said outright that they didn’t feel safe attending games this year.

Many fans expressed concerns about seat relocation, either in terms of having a worse view of the field or being split up from their friends and family with whom they normally sit (or out of view from their children who play in the marching band or who are cheerleaders).

Here’s what some concerned FAU fans wrote:

  • “Unless it is safe i will not be going this year”

  • “Till there is a vaccine for this covid19. Mixing with large groups is wreckless.”

  • “Social distancing and masks save lives - but you have to enforce masks!!!”

  • “This has to be about overall safety. This Corona is far bigger then football and players and fans MUST be considered”

  • “Due to the virus increase now in Florida, we hesitate to make a decision regarding attending the games.”

  • “If games are played this season, I will attempt to resell my seats. I WILL NOT attend a public event this fall with a large crowd, even with attempts at 'social distancing'. Too many people are not taking those guidelines seriously, even now. I believe we've proven a vast majority of the public is not smart and mature enough to follow the rules. Even attempting to hold games with large crowds before vaccines and better Covid treatment methods are available is irresponsible bordering on criminal.”

  • “I do not think games should be open to fans this upcoming season. Even though we enjoy attending there is no way fans can safely attend.”


  • “I really want to be back and enjoy the game but I am very uneasy without a vaccine.”

  • “Until there is a vaccine we will not be attending any large gathering of any kind”

  • “Adequate hand sanitizers and soap and copious paper towels for hand hygiene is critical along with thorough cleaning before and after the events,.”

  • “If masks are required, then people not complying need to be escorted from the stadium”

  • “Need a vaccine before football”

  • “i will come when vaccine is available to all”

  • “We will only attend if we can be very assured of safety and that seems very unlikely now”

  • “Masks should be required and they need to cover the nose AND mouth area and not hang on a chin.”

  • “Safety is paramount. With events and conditions changing as fast as they are, it is difficult to predict what the situation will be three weeks from now — much less for three months.”

  • “I believe social distancing during games is most important to me. I appreciate the survey. This is more thorough than my Broward school board survey.”

  • “Until there is a significant down turn in the number of new cases daily, I will NOT be attending any sporting events including FAU football.”

  • “COVID 19 numbers are still on the rise. I think it foolish and dangerous to attend sporting events”

Here’s what FAU fans who didn’t seem to be as concerned about the virus wrote:

  • “Please let us take personal responsibility for ourselves. If your scared [sic], stay home. Your chances of surviving of you catch this is 99.6 percent. This is all ridiculous based on those statistics.”

  • “As you can tell I am not really concerned about this virus. My big concern is overreaction on your part and putting unnecessary restraints on me.”

  • “You have bought into the nanny state. I feel sorry for you.”

  • “if you move me from my seats. as you did to the fans last year so you could move the students. I WILL CANCEL !”

  • “Plan on attending and tailgating at all games.....if you move my seats i probably wont attend”

  • “The CDC says that risk of transmission is reduced when outside”

  • “will not attend if masks are not required. Also who will enforce the mask requirement?”

  • “I am not concerned being outside in Florida. I feel like I am more likely to be negatively impacted by the flu then Covid. And I am not worried about either one. Keep your body healthy and let that amazing machine do it's job. I want to sit in my seat. Just let others who is worried sit anywhere in the stadium they choose with available open space. But people who want there [sic] regular seats should make that choice for themselves. I want normalcy, people who are concerned can make adjustments as they see fit without causing everyone else to jump through hoops. The stadium is so big, it seems like there are lots of options.”

Recap of yesterday’s newsletter

Click on the image to read.

“This has been an issue now in the department for several years. Current MPD Union President is very much a ‘law and order’ cop and the culture is not likely to change until they make some wholesale leadership changes.”

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Thank you for reading this edition of Out of Bounds with Andy Wittry. If you enjoyed it, please consider sharing it on social media or sending it to a friend or colleague. Questions, comments and feedback are welcome at or on Twitter.